Water is a common substance found on the Earth, and is necessary for the survival of most known forms of life, including Human life.
Names for Water
Most people who use the word "water" are referring to Liquid water.
If liquid water is falling from the sky, then it is called Rain; and if this is happening it is said to be Raining. If the rain droplets are very very fine, then it is called Miss. And if Miss is falling from the sky, it is said to be Missy.
Solid water is called Ice or Snow, depending on whether it is a solid piece or a power, respectively. Also, if solid water is falling from the sky, then it is called Hail or Snow depending on whether what is falling are a large solid pieces, or a delicate crystal, respectively.
Gaseous water (or water vapour) is called Steam if there is a little of it; and is a Cloud or Fog if there is alot of it, depending on whether it is in the sky or at ground level, respectively.
If the water falling from the sky is a mixture of Snow and Rain then it is called a Flurry.
A mixture of snow and liquid water is called a Slush.
Large bodies of liquid water are called: Oceans, Lakes, or Seas. Long bodies of moving liquid water are called: Rivers or Streams. If the water from one of these falls off of a cliff or from a mountain or something like that, then it is called a Waterfall.
Large bodies of solid water are called: Glaciers
Snow that is rapidly sliding across the ground is called an Avalanche.
The liquid water droplets that forms on exposed objects in the morning or evening is called Dew.
Solid cystalized water that forms on exposed objects is called Frost.
Solid water hanging spikes that form when falling or dripping water freezes to form a Stalactite is called an Icicle. And solid water, upward pointing spikes formed from falling or dripping water freezes to form a Stalagmite is called an Ice Spike.
A very very large piece of solid water, floating in liquid water, is called an Iceberg.
Many of these forms of water are not in pure forms.
Although not a name for water, and more a name for a type of Weather involving water, if land that this not normally coverred with water gets covered with water, then that is called a Flood. Also, very heavy falling rain that results in a flood very shortly after the rain starts, is called a Flash Flood.
Also, although not a name for water, and more a name for a type of Weather involving water, the situation where you have heaving blowing snow is called a Blizzard.
There are also many other types of Weather involving (or often involving) water; including: Cyclones, Fog Bows Hurricanes, Moonbows, Rainbows, Storms, Sun Dogs, Tornadoes, and Tsunamis.
The chemical formula for water is:
Each Molecule of water is made up of 2 Hydrogen atoms and 1 Oxygen atom.
Hydrogen, which makes up 2 or the 3 atoms in every water molecule, comes in a number of different know Isotopes. Namely: Protium, Deuterium, Tritium, etc. (Protium and Deuterium being the only know stable Hydrogen isotopes.)
Normal pure water usually has a relvatively low amount of Deuterium.
Heavy Water is a special kind of water which contains a higher proportion of Deuterium.
Heavy water has slightly different chemical properties to normal water.
Types of Ice
Under different atmospheric pressues, Ice will form different Crystal structures. (At different atmospheric pressues, water becomes a solid at different temperatures.)
Earth, Wind, Water, Fire
We have old records that state that everything is made up of (possible) mixes of Earth, Wind, Water, and Fire. These were called the 4 Elements.
Most people I've heard regard this as nonsense, given our knowledge of Chemistry. (That we have much much more than 4 elements, things like: Hydrogen, Helium, Lithium, Beryllium, Boron, Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen, etc.)
But I've noticed that these 4 (so called) elements correspond to the 4 states of matter.
In the past, the word "element" may have had a different meaning. Also, in the past, at the very least, in this context, these (so called) 4 elements may have had different meanings too.
And although I've never seen others mention this before, I believe that in this ancient sense, "water" has essentially the same meaning as (the modern word) Liquid. In full though, I believe that this is an accurate translation of the meaning of the 4 elements is....
One thing to note. These "classical names" are in English, but these are really translations of the classical names from other languages. I.e., these classical names, for the 4 elements, were not in English originally.
I've noticed that Persian retains some of this ancient usage of the word "water". The Persian word for "water" -- Ob -- means water, but can be used to mean Liquid in many contexts.