While neural nets grabbed the limelight, a small splinter group of neural network theorists built networks that didn't focus on behavior. Called auto-associative memories, they were also built out of simple "neurons" that connected to each other and fired when they reached a certain threshold. But they were interconnected differently, using lots of feedback. Instead of only passing information forward, as in a back propagation network, auto-associative memories fed the output of each neuron back into the input -- sort of like calling yourself on the phone. This feedback loop led to some interesting features. When a pattern of activity was imposed on the artificial neurons, they formed a memory of this pattern. The auto-associative network associated patterns with themselves, hence the term auto-associative memory.
The result of this wiring may at first seem ridiculous. To retrieve a pattern stored in such a memory, you must provide the pattern you want to retrieve. It would be like going to the grocer and asking to buy a bunch of bananas. When the grocer asks you how you will pay, you offer to pay with bananas. What good is that? you might ask. But an auto-associative memory has a few important properties that are found in real brains.
The most important property is that you don't have to have the entire pattern you want to retrieve in order to retrieve it. You might have only part of the pattern, or you might have a somewhat messed-up pattern. The auto-associative memory can retrieve the correct pattern, as it was originally stored, even though you start with a messy version of it. It would be like going to the grocer with half eaten brown bananas and getting whole green bananas in return. Or going to the bank with a ripped and unreadable bill and the banker says, "I think this is a messed-up $100 bill. Give me that one, and I will give you this new, crisp $100 bill."
Second, unlike most other neural networks, an autoassociative memory can be designed to store sequences of patterns, or temporal patterns. This feature is accomplished by adding a time delay to the feedback. With this delay, you can present an auto-associative memory with a sequence of patterns, similar to a melody, and it can remember the sequence. I might feed in the first new notes of "Twinkle Twinkle Little Star" and the memory returns the whole song. When presented with part of the sequence, the memory can recall the rest.
from "On Intelligence"
Quoted on Sat Dec 24th, 2011