What Many Artificial Neural Networks Are Like
[Many artificial neural] networks are "neural" in the sense that they may have been inspired by neuroscience, but not necessarily because they are faithful models of biological neural or cognitive phenomena. In fact, [... many artificial neural networks ...] are more closely related to traditional mathematical and/or statistical models such as non-parametric pattern classifiers, clustering algorithms, nonlinear filters, and statistical regression models than they do with neurobiological models.
from "Fundamentals of Artificial Neural Networks"
Quoted on Mon Sep 26th, 2011